Ambulance Visibility
Emergency vehicle conspicuity research on livery, warning lights and
high visibility markings - photos, technical information & newsletters by John Killeen  

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Clothing and PPE
The following two papers should be read together (links updated 11 Feb 2013)   
Roadworker Conspicuity – Daytime and Nightime* 
Helman, S. and Palmer, M. – Transport Research Laboratory UK (TRL) – September 2010
High Conspicuity Garments for Roadworkers – Final Report
Chattington, M. Langham, M. Rillie, I.

Law Enforcement Stops and Safety Subcommittee – 2006 Staff Report
The roles of garment design and scene complexity in the daytime conspicuity of high-visibility safety apparel
Mefford, M and Sayer, J – February 2005
International High-Visibility risk related clothing standard
Secretariat-IHVCA – Draft 9
The effect of color contrast on daytime and nighttime conspicuity of roadworkers vests
Mefford, M. Sayer, J. – UMITRI – September 2000
Conspicuity of First Responder Safety Garments
Buonarosa, M. Sayer, J. Tuttle, S. – UMITRI – April 2008
Seeing Pedestrians at Night
Green, M.
Pedestrian Conspicuity at Night:
The effect of Retroreflector Placement and Retroreflection
Thesis by Graving, J. – Clemson University, August 2008
Google Books – LINK 
Visual detection of detectable warning materials by pedestrians with visual impairments*
Jenness, J. and Singer, J. – Federal Highway Administration 2006
NASCO High-Visibility Rainwear Summary
ANSI/ISEA 107 2004 Standard
Effects of Retroreflective Marking Color of Pedestrian Detection Distance 
Sayer, J. Mefford, M. Flannagan, M, Sivak, M. Traube, E. Kejima, S. – UMITRI – March 1998 
The Effect of Colour Contrast on Daytime and Nighttime Conspicuity of Roadworker Vests
Mefford, M. & Sayer, J – UMITRI – September 2000
Conspicuity of High-Visibility Safety Apparel During Civil Twilight
Mefford, M. & Sayer, J – UMITRI – June 2006
Conspicuity of First Responder Safety Garments
Buonarosa, M. Sayer, J. Tuttle, S. – UMITRI – June 2006
Evaluation of reflective vest options – Final Report
Kubu, B. Carney, A. Nisenson, A.
The roles of Retroreflective arm treatments and arm motion in nightime pedestrian conspicuity
Mefford, M. & Sayer, J – UMITRI – October 2004

The following two papers should be read together
Size isn’t everything: The effects of size and brightness of retroreflective materials on nighttime conspicuity
Anderson, N. Brooks, B. Cassidy, P. – 3M Company
Comments on the 3M Report:- 
“Size isn’t everything: The effects of size and brightness of retroreflective materials on nighttime conspicuity” 
King, T – September 2010

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