Ambulance Visibility
Emergency vehicle conspicuity research on livery, warning lights and
high visibility markings - photos, technical information & newsletters by John Killeen  

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Accoustic characteristics for effective ambulance sirens
Carl Q. Howard, Aaron J. Maddern and Elefterios P. Privopoulos
School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia
Emergency vehicle auditory warning signals: Physical and psychoacoustic considerations 
AJ Maddern, EP Privopoulis and CQ Howard

NIJ Standard for Emergency Vehicle Sirens
US Department of Justice
Emergency Vehicle Accidents – Prevention, reconstruction and survey of State law, 2nd Edition
Solomon, S. and Hill, P. 
Chapter 6, PP 59-67
Google Books  CLICK HERE
Emergency Vehicle Warning Systems
Rubin, A. and Howitt, G.
Google Books  CLICK HERE
The Alarming Sounds of Silence
Miller, M. Beaton, R. – Ergonomics in Design 1994
Factors to consider when running Code 3 – Part 1
Molnar, J. – LawOfficer Magazine – 31 July 2008
Factors affecting auditory localization and situational awareness in the urban battlefield
Scharine, A. and Letowski, T. – Army Research Laboratory – April 2005
Loudspeaker directivity and vehicle siren sound levels
Article on MC Squared System Design Group website
Considerations for running Code 3 – Part 1
Molnar, J. – LawOfficer Magazine – August 2008
With New Device, Police Shake, Rattle and Roll
Klein, A. – Washington Post – October 29, 2007
Lights and siren: A review of emergency vehicle warning systems*
De Lorenzo, R and Eilers, R – Annuls of Emergency Medicine 1991
The whisper and the siren
Dean, I. – Deafness Research UK website
Evaluating warning sound urgency with reaction times
Suied, C. Susini, P. McAdams, S.
Are vehicle accidents caused by emergency sirens?
Dale, A – Article
Safer Sirens
Withington, D. and Paterson, S.
Localisable Alarms
Withington. D,
An introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology
Esgate, A. Groome, D. Baker, K.
Auditory Perception p247 – Google Books
Literaturrecherche zum Thema Sondersignal
Siren literature search
The quest for better ambulance sirens
Withington, D.
Directional Sound for Long Distance Auditory Warnings from a Highway Construction Work Zone
Gridsada, P. Rajamani, R. Hourdos, J
The effectiveness of auditory side and forward collision warnings in winter driving conditions
Harder, K. Bloomfield, J. Chihak, B.
The sound quality of car horns: Designing new representative sounds
Lemaitre, G. Susini, P. Winsberg, S. McAdams, S.
Use of warning lights and siren in emergency vehicle response and patient transport
Paper developed for NAEMSP by the Emergency Medical Response Task Force
Utililization of warning lights and siren based on hospital Time-Critical interventions
Marques-Baptista, A.   Ohman-Strickland, P.  Baldino, K,  Prasto, M.  M erlin, M,
Paramedic response time: Does it affect patient survival
Pons, P, Haukoos, J.  Bludworth, W. Cribley, W. Markovchick, V. 
Guide to test methods, performance requirements and installation practises
for electronic sirens used on law enforcement vehicles* 
Wagner, R.
Neuhaus, M. 1991
Cancelation of siren noise from two-way voice communications in emergency vehicles 
Sherratt, R.   Townsend, D.  Guy, C.  
EMS myth No.4 – Lights and sirens save a significant amount of travel time and lives
Bledsoe, B – EMS World, February 2011
Have we set the bar too high?
Bledsoe, B
Human factors research to support effective evaluation of in-vehicle systems: A case study example
Lenne, M. – MUARC  2008
Reduce risk and liability with a smart approach for emergency resonses
O’Neal, J
The Design Development of a Mobile Alert Device for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Ravid, U and Cairns, P.
Risk reduction for emergency response
Federal Signal Corp – 2012
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