Ambulance Visibility
Emergency vehicle conspicuity research on livery, warning lights and
high visibility markings - photos, technical information & newsletters by John Killeen  

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Effects – Wake effect, Moth effect etc   
Seeing the Light – the science of choosing proper emergency lighting for patrol cars*
Molnar, J. – Law Officer Magazine – March 2008
Moth effect – p22
Conspicuity and retroreflective materials
Federal Highways Adminsitration Lecture
The Wake Effect – Emergency vehicle related collisions
Jeff J. Clawson, MD; Robert L. Martin; Geoff A. Cady, REMT-P; Ronald F. Maio, DO
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine; Vol. 12, No. 4; October-December 1997
Is the Moth Effect real?
Green, M.
Evaluating warning sound urgency with reaction times
Suied, C. Susini, P. McAdams, S.
Are vehicle accidents caused by emergency sirens?
Dale, A – Article
An Analysis of Ambulance Accidents in Tennessee
Auerbach, P.   Morris, J. Phillips, J. Redlinger, S. Vaughn, W.
Svallvagskrascher “The Wake Effect”
Article in Swedish
Use Google Translate –
Emergency ambulances on the public highway linked with inconvenience and potential danger to road users
Saunders, G and Gough, A.
The Design Development of a Mobile Alert Device for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Ravid, U and Cairns, P.
Wake Effect pp 6-7
Fatal attraction: ‘The moth effect endangers motorists, police’
Harris, K. – Pocono Record 15 July 2012
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