Ambulance Visibility
Emergency vehicle conspicuity research on livery, warning lights and
high visibility markings - photos, technical information & newsletters by John Killeen  

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Warning lights
Lights and siren: A review of emergency vehicle warning systems*
De Lorenzo, R and Eilers, R – Annuls of Emergency Medicine 1991
Motor vehicle conspicuity – Warning beacons*
ICE Ergonomics – 2002
Highway construction, maintenance, and service equipment warning lights
and pavement data collection system system safety.
Ullman, G. Ragsdale, J. Chaudhary, N. – Texas Transportation Institute – October 1998
PDF 2.3Mb
Texas DOT Vehicle Fleet Warning Light Policy Research*
Ullman, G. Lewis, D.
Signal lighting system requirements for emergency, school bus and service vehicles
Post, D. Highway Safety Research Institute University of Michigan
NCHRP Report 624, Selection and application of warning lights on roadway operations equipment*
Gibbons, lee, Williams & Miller – Transportation Research Board 2008
Motor vehicle and Pedal Cycle Conspicuity – Part 1, Vehicle Mounted Warning Beacons*
Cook, S. Quigley, C. Clift, L. – March 2000  PDF 1.3Mb
Summary of Motor Vehicle and Pedal Cycle Conspicuity – Part 2, Pedal Cycles*
Clift, L. Southall, D. – May 2001
Motor vehicle and Pedal Cycle Conspicuity – Part 3, Vehicle Mounted Warning Beacons*
Cook, S. Quigley, C. Clift, L. – June 1999  PDF 1.3Mb
Keeping Officers Safe on the Road
Pearsall, B. – NIJ Journal Issue 265
Conspicuity of aids to navigation – 1. temporal patterns for flashing lights
Laxar, K. Benoit, S. – Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory – May 1993
Green Warning Lights PowerPoint
Young, R. – Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia
Seeing the Light – the science of choosing proper emergency lighting for patrol cars*
Molnar, J. – Law Officer Magazine – March 2008
Reactions to emergency lights
Karczewski, M. – Police Fleet Manager Magazine, January 2002
Emergency Lights for Slicktop Vehicles
Police Fleet Manager Magazine – April 2009
Color Identification in the Visual periphery: Consequences of Color coding of vehicle signals
Sivak, M. Flannagan, M. Miyokawa, T. Traube, E. – UMTRI, July 1999
Effects of Warning Lamp Color and Intensity on Driver Vision*
Flannagan, M. Blower, D. Devonshire, J. – UMTRI, October 2008
What’s Flashing before your Eyes?
Roads and Bridges – July 2000
Report on the CIE workshop: Photometry of Flashing Lights*
Poland,  June 1999
Improving the Ability of Drivers to Avoid Collisions with Snowploughs in Fog and Snow*
Yonas, A. Zimmerman, L. – University of Minnesota – July 2006
Rear Lighting Configurations for Winter Maintenance Vehicles 
Bullough, J. Rea, M. Pysar, R. Nakhla, H. Amsler, D. – August 2001
Emergency warning lights and parking procedures
Faugh, R – Fire Police website
Efficacy of Rectangular-shaped Rapid Flash LED beacons
Houten, R. Malenfant, J. – 1.3Mb
Motor Vehicle Conspicuity – Warning Beacons*
48th GRE – April 2002 – PDF 322Kb
Let’s/LED’s go for quality
Processing of a flashing display by younger and older drivers  
Flannagan, M. Schumman, J, Sivak, M. Mefford, M. – UMITI
Improving the ability of drivers to avoid collisions with snowploughs in fog and snow
Yonas, A. Zimmerman, L. – July 2006 – PDF
Enhanced aircraft conspicuity to reduce runway incursions
Gallagher, W. – USDOT – April 2007 – PDF 177Kb
Simple reaction time as a function of luminance for various wavelengths
Lit, A. Young, R. Scaffer, M. – perception & Psychophysics 1971 – PDF 586Kb
Safety and effectiveness of emergency vehicle lighting
Dunn, K. Tunnicliff, D. – Sydney, 2005
Conspicuity of aids to navigation; temporal patterns of flashing lights
Benoit, S. Laxar, K. – May 1993
Law Enforcement Stops and Safety Subcommittee – 2006 Staff Report
Conspicuity – Police Association of Ontario Magazine
Police Vehicles and Lights
Faugh, J. – January 2006 – Google Docs
Vehicle conspicuity – a matter of life and death
Fire & Rescue magazine – January 2007
Daytime Running Lights
National Roads Association
Eight reasons to oppose daytime running lights
National Motorists Association
Emergency Vehicle Warning Systems
Rubin, A. and Howitt, G.
Google Books  CLICK HERE
Reducing work zone crashes by using vehicle’s warning flashers as a warning sign
Yong Bai and Yingfeng Li
LED lighting for snowploughs and related maintenance and construction vehicles* 
Vogt, T. and Miller, K.
How to safely use emergency lights
Yates, T – 2009
Police vehicles and lights
Faugh, J
CLICK HERE – Google Docs
Warning Lights, Parking and Scene Safety PowerPoint* 
Faugh, J – Warning – Large file (10Mb) 
Warning Lights for Public Works Vehicles*
Interview with Stephen Solomon and Gerald Ullman in Lone Star Roads
Incident Site Safety: Working multilane highway incidents and staying alive
Kirby, B – Mesqite Fire Dept, 2005
CDOT – Colorado Winter Driving – You Tube 
Reducing Warning Zone crashes by using vehicle warning flashers as a warning sign
Bai, Y. YingFeng, L. – University of Kansas & Kansas DOT – January 2009
Risk reduction for emergency response
Federal Signal Corp – 2012
Performance analysis of squad car lighting, retroreflective markings and paint treatments to improve safety at roadside traffic stops*
Fischer, J. Kzmarzick, K. Menon, A. Shankwitz, C. – May 2012
Keeping officers safe on the road
Pearsall, B. – NIJ Journal No 265
Principle other vehicle warning  
B Thorslund, J Janssen, B Peters, J Andersson Hultgren and M Brannstrom – VTI & Volvo, 2013 

Electroluminescent Light
An Analysis of the Application Regarding the Visibility of Roadside Equipment
R Ceci and J Ihlstrom

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