Ambulance Visibility
Emergency vehicle conspicuity research on livery, warning lights and
high visibility markings - photos, technical information & newsletters by John Killeen  

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3rd Annual EMS Safety Summit PowerPoint Presentation
John Killeen, Denver, Colorado, October 2010 (PDF 2.67Mb)
Emergency Vehicle Chevrons – Part 1
John Killeen – Ambulance Visibility BLOG, June 2010
Emergency Vehicle Chevrons – Part 2
John Killeen – Ambulance Visibility BLOG, June 2010
Chevron enquiry from Pikesville FD
John Killeen – Ambulance Visibility BLOG, January 2011
Fire Apparatus Livery
Adams, W – Firehouse Magazine, November 2008
The inverted V chevron pattern
Firehouse Forum Discussion 2004
Chevrons on the rear of firefighting apparatus: The background*
Tutterow, R –, October 2008 
Rear-end crashes
Baldock, MRJ. Long, AD. Lindsay, VL. McLean, AJ.- September 2005 
Centre for Automotive Safety Research 
Specification for the Livery on Police Patrol Cars*
Thomas, A – Home Office – Police Scientific Branch 1998
Visibility and Judgement in Car-Night Truck Accidents*
Ayres, TJ. Schmidt, RA. Steele, BD. Bayan, FP – 1995
Improving the ability of drivers to avaoid collisions with snowploughs in fog and snow*
Yonas, A. Zimmerman, L. – Minnesota Department of Transportation – July 2006
Hazardous Conclusions
The Revcounter Forum Discussion – 2008
Emergency Vehicle Safety Initiative
Federal Emergency management Agency – FA 272 – August 2004 
An analysis of looked but failed to see accidents involving parked police vehicles*
Langham, M. Hole, G. Edwards, J. O’Neil, C – School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, University of Sussex 2002
Problems in the detection and identification of significant roadway conditions 
Olsen, P. Sivak, M. – University of Michigan Highway Research Institute – October 1981     
Emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity study – FA323*
Federal Emergency management Agency – August 2009
Rear-end Collision – Looming
Green, M
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