Ambulance Visibility
Emergency vehicle conspicuity research on livery, warning lights and
high visibility markings - photos, technical information & newsletters by John Killeen  

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Research & Report documents
BRP Report – Countermeasures – Ford Fleet Showroom CVPI Officer Safety
The intent of this discussion is to identify countermeasures that are likely to make stopped emergency vehicles more conspicuous to oncoming drivers and thereby reduce rear-end crashes into stopped emergency vehicles.    
Emergency ambulances on the public highway linked with inconvenience and potential danger
to road users – G Saunders, A Gough – Objectives: The main aim was to survey interactions between the public highway users and emergency ambulances using lights and sirens. The objectives were to identify negative and positive experiences, and to assess the frequency and consequences of these events.  –  FREE REGISTRATION REQUIRED 
Texas DOT Vehicle Fleet Warning Lights Policy Research TRB Transportation E-Circular EC013.  Gerald Ullman and Don Lewis 
This paper presents an overview and preliminary results of current research being conducted by the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to improve the latter’s vehicle fleet warning light policy and procedures.  
Dispelling Myths on Ambulance Accidents – Journal of Emergency Medical Services (JEMS), July 1989 Robert Elling, NREMT-P
High Conspicuity Livery for Police Vehicles (Home Office – Police Scientific Branch; P Harrison, 2004) This document provides specifications for high-conspicuity livery schemes for both motorway and urban patrol vehicles (Battenburg markings).
High Conspicuity Livery for Police Motorcycles (Home Office – Police Scientific Branch; P Harrison, 2006) In response to an operational requirement for a motorcycle livery scheme, research has been carried out into how best to make motorcycles conspicuous and recognisable
Thermal Roof Markings for Police Vehicles (Home Office – Police Scientific Branch; A Brooke, 2004) An update of the the report “Standard Roof Markings for Police Vehicles” in order to take advantage of new materials offering the ability to discern the markings using thermal imager equipment.
Lights and Siren: A Review of Emergency Vehicle Warning Systems  Annals of Emergency Medicine, December 1991 Robert A. De Lorenzo, MD, EMT-P; Mark A. Eilers, MD, FACEP: htm  
Motor Vehicle and Pedal Cycle Conspicuity – Part 1 Vehicle Mounted Warning Beacons, Summary Report – Sharon Cook, Claire Quigley, Lauence Clift (ICE Ergonomics) The report test programme confirmed that, in general, those factors which make a warning beacon more conspicuous also give rise to disability glare, discomfort glare and distraction.
On-Road Investigation of Fluorescent Sign Colors to Improve Conspicuity – Richard Anders
This thesis documents Phase III of a research program undertaken by the Virginia Transportation Research Council and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute in cooperation with the 3M Company and the Virginia Department of Transportation for the evaluation of visual performance of retroreflective signs of various color combinations.
Fluorescent Colored Stimuli Automatically Attract Visual Attention:  An Eye Movement Study Frank Schieber, Nick Willan and Ben Schlorholtz Heimstra – Human Factors Laboratories, University of South Dakota  Fluorescent colored materials possess qualities that can lead to enhanced visibility and safety. However, little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this enhanced visual conspicuity. 
Lots more will be uploaded soon!
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