Ambulance Visibility
Emergency vehicle conspicuity research on livery, warning lights and
high visibility markings - photos, technical information & newsletters by John Killeen  

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Siren Limitations Ideal warning lights The Role of Warning Lights Light – Properties & Source types Light colours Ideal Livery model Vehicle Body Colour Fluorescent Colours Reflective Materials Old vs New Livery Other Livery Updates Key Conspicuity and Visibility Reports Vehicle Colour Fluorescent & Reflective Markings Battenburg Markings Chevrons Warning lights Amber/Steady Burn Effects – Wake/Moth etc Accidents and LBFTS Sirens Cognitive Conspicuity DRL’s Motorcycle Conspicuity David Green Collection Author Lists Clothing/PPE ACT Ambulance Vehicles  Other Australian agencies ACT Ambulance Operations Airservices Australia International vehicles Fleet Photos SouthCare Helicopter Individuals & organisations Research & Report documents Emergency Service Organisations Suppliers

ACT Ambulance Intensive Care Paramedic Mercedes Sprinter at night - John Killeen - www.ambulancevisibility.com         Ambulance_Visibility_Logo  

                    Ambulance, Police, Fire and Emergency Vehicle Conspicuity & Visibility   Ambulance Visibility provides the latest research & technical information on emergency vehicle conspicuity, livery, high-visibility markings and warning lights that are currently under development by emergency service agencies throughout the world . This website includes the following resources:
  • Discussion pages with links to technical papers & other websites 
  • A worldwide reference library of links to individuals, research organisations and resources including user-visible URL’s
  • Current listing of links to Australian ambulance and emergency service organisation 
  • Photo galleries of Australian emergency service vehicles in high-visibility livery 
  • PowerPoints from conference presentations by John Killeen available as PDF downloads 
  • PDF newsletter downloads 
  • Multi-language translation using Google Translate

  Above: ACT Intensive Care Ambulance – Photo by Lannon Harley


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Read the  Ambulance Visibility Blog  Latest news & research articles with an opportunity to comment  CLICK HERE      The AV Reference Library Ambulance Visibility Reference Library Icon A convenient one stop resource accessing the latest research and documents. Comprehensive links & downloads to visibility/conspicuity documents & resources worldwide. Includes a large collection of previously unavailable PDF documents and articles including those from Australian researcher David Green. CLICK HERE – or by subject: INDEX    KEY RESEARCH    VEHICLE COLOUR    VEHICLE MARKINGS    BATTENBURG CHEVRONS    WARNING LIGHTS    AMBER/STEADY BURN LIGHTS    ACCIDENTS WAKE/MOTH EFFECT     DRL’s   MOTORCYCLES    CLOTHING/PPE CONSPICUITY   
Translate Google   Translate the AV website and BLOG  Copy the browser URL address, click HERE or the icon and PASTE the URL into Google translate Most HTML (non-Flash) externally linked sites will also be in the translation language.       Air Services Australia - ARRF Fire Truck comparison - www.ambulancevisibility.com - John Killeen Renovate your markings – see our success stories     Images with details explaining the changes undertaken by various emergency organisations following advice or consultation from John Killeen and Ambulance Visibility – CLICK HERE      Where do I start? Try this…..   Question icon 1. First, look at the information shown below on the Home page & BLOG 2. Next, goto the images of OLD vs NEW vehicle markings – CLICK HERE and then move onto the latest News and the pages below + others 3. Livery and Markings – CLICK HERE 4. Warning lights – CLICK HERE 5. Downloads, PowerPoints & information – CLICK HERE 6.  Check out the AV Reference Library – CLICK HERE   New Icon Site updated  – 18 June 2016

Current Issues & Information
  Colorado EMS Safety Summit Powerpoint - Ambulance Visibility - John Killeen Visibility & Conspicuity Presentation by John Killeen 3rd Annual EMS Safety Summit, Denver Colorado 13-15 October 2010     Available on the Downloads page   The trip to Colorado for the presentation was generously sponsored by American Medical Response in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the SEMTAC Transportation Safety Sub-Committee and the Mile-High RETAC organisation. Special thanks to Sean Caffrey (CDPHE), Shirley Terry (MH-RETAC) and Ron Thackery (AMR) for their assistance and support over the week of the conference.   If you attended the supplementary AMR presentation webinar on 3 Nov 2010 please email for the download link.
  Road Worker Conspicuity Roadworker Conspicuity – Daytime & Nightime – NEW! S. Helman and M. Palmer from TRL released this report for the UK Highways Agency in late 2010. This recent report interviews road workers to gauge their expectations of High-Visibility retroreflective garments and then goes on to survey a large number of participants under realistic test conditions.   The study demonstrates that some Hi-Viz safety colours viewed in proximity to response vehicles and against different types of background clutter may have much shorter detection distances than shown previously. In particular this shortfall occurs at night where some visual detection distances can fall to as low as 25 – 45 meters at the roadside. Make sure you read this important new research – CLICK HERE  Also the Roadworker conspicuity briefing note – CLICK HERE Please note: These links have now been updated to the revised Highways Agency URL after the HA changed their website (11 Feb 2013)    
  Swedish_Battenburg_www.ambulancevisibility.com Swedish trial of enhanced Battenburg markings on highway work vehicles   The original report was written by Johan Granlund, Stefan Hedlof and Tommy Nilsson in May 2008 and has been translated into english for the first time by Johan & John Killeen. Read about the trial in Swedish or English – CLICK HERE   In Swedish – Forstarkt utmarkning av vaghallningsforden med SK Battenburg monster     
Blue_man_scholar   David Green’s conspicuity research and articles available together in the AV Reference Library During the 1970’s David Green provided significant conspicuity research input to emergency agencies in Australia. David has kindly provided copies of his research papers and magazine articles for inclusion in the new AV Reference Library where they are published together for the first time. Read all of David’s work – CLICK HERE  
UK HeavyVehicles Conspicuity Guidelines  Application of Retro Reflective Conspicuity Markings to Heavy Vehicles This compliance guide for Conspicuity Markings to Heavy Vehicles was released in February 2011 by the Freight Transport Association in the UK and clearly outlines the new UN ECE conspicuity markings required by the European Union agreements.   This is a concise document that illustrates the minimum coverage required for civilian vehicle conspicuity. The new regulations do not require full outline contour markings on the upper side surfaces of the vehicle but a full contour marking set remains essential for all emergency vehicles. The advantages of fluorescent/reflective materials are strongly reinforced, especially the superiority of a solid band of fluorescent colour rather than the red/white alternating pattern found within the US NHTSA conspicuity regulations for trucks. The Canadian Study linked below demonstrates the superiority of a single flourescent colour under different weather conditions Read the UK Goods Vehicle guidelines – CLICK HERE Read the Canadian Effectiveness of Heavy Truck Conspicuity Treatments – CLICK HERE   
    Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Study Cover - www.ambulancevisibility.com Emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity study  FEMA report released August 2009 To read the report – CLICK HERE   Read a brief synopsis of the FEMA report presented to the EMS Safety Foundation by John Killeen – CLICK HERE    
  Airservices Australia (ARFF) Aviation Fire vehicle conspicuity comparison photos under airfield viewing conditions - Ambulance Visibility - www.ambulancevisibility.comAirservices Australia (ARFF) Aviation Fire Vehicle Conspicuity Images Comparison photos of yellow-green and red fire vehicles under airfield viewing conditions   To read the comparison – CLICK HERE   Reproduced with the permission of Mark Parsons, Bruce England & Simon Grafton, Airservices Australia                
  Sirens Report Accoustic characteristics for effective ambulance sirens     Carl Q. Howard, Aaron J. Maddern and Elefterios P. Privopoulos School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia   This report published last year has a comprehensive comparison between an Australian siren mounted on a South Australian ambulance and   other types (including Rumblers) from around the world. A major confirmation in testing was the dramatic drop-off of 12db at 90 degrees to the forward axis. Subjectively this means the siren is less than half as loud out to the sides of the vehicle – this is a particularly important point when crossing intersections.  Read more – Accoustics Australia – Volume 39 August 2011 PDF – CLICK HERE More information – Sirens in the AV Reference Library – CLICK HERE  
  Ambulance Visibility supports NETS NSW/ACT with on-going sponsorship and technical advice      NETS NSW neonatal paediatric intensive care transfer-Ambulance Visibility-www.ambulancevisibility.com NETS Video Link   NETS Video 3   The NETS teams are based in Sydney and service regional New South Wales/ACT by operating from stations located in the major country centres. NETS provides emergency intensive care for newborns and children Read more about NETS – CLICK HERE View the NETS videos – CLICK HERE  
    ACT Ambulance Intensive Care Paramedic Nissan Navara 4WD-high visibility livery-Ambulance Visibility-www.ambulancevisibility.com ACT Ambulance Intensive Care Paramedic Navara 4WD with high visibility livery Ambulance Visibility – ambulancevisibility.com
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